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First round winners

The Blue Diversion Toilet

The Blue Diversion is a next-generation urine diversinon dry toilet that provides water for flushing, hand washing, and personal hygiene. Urine, feces, and used water are separated at the source.The used water is recovered on site in a self-cleaning ultrafiltration unit and reused.

The core of the Blue Diversion Toilet is the back wall containing the compact water recovery technology.Feces and urine are separately collected under the separating pan. The soiled water from hand-washing, pan cleaning, anal cleaning, and menstrual hygiene is also separated and fully recycled to be used for the same purposes.

The Blue Diversion Toilet features an innovated dry source-separating pan, which can be cleaned with on site recovered water without the use of mechanical parts for cleaning.The squatting pan can be transformed by 90 degrees rotation into a washing pan by foot activation.

The blue diversion toilet can be used anywhere and is grid-free (not connected to electricity grid, piped water, or sewer).

The toilet is designed for a setting of four families sharing two toilets. As a (re)movable piece of furniture it can be retrofitted into existing toilet superstructures, or in any other bathroom, thereby allowing to set up a "Rent-a-Toilet" sustem



The Caltech system

Researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have built a toilet that uses the sun to power an electrochemical reactor. The reactor breaks down water and human waste into fertilizer and hydrogen, which can be used in hydrogen fuel cells as energy. The treated water can then be reused to flush the toilet or for irrigation.


The Caltech system is an onsite wastewater treatment and recycling unit that can be powered by solar panels or by connection to the electrical grid. The fully integrated treatment system includes:
• in-situ disinfection
• by-product extraction
• the generation of hydrogen as a by-product of waste treatment
• a solar energy battery storage system
• solar arrays, and
• a microfiltration component for final polishing of the water before reuse and recycling.


The Loughborough Toilet

The guiding objective of the Loughborough Toilet is to safely eliminate known pathogens while recovering scarce resources from waste; the recovered resources can then be used to finance safer disposal in a userfriendly and socially acceptable manner at household levels. The toilet’s configuration eliminates the hassle of separating urine and excreta, and may also take in other organic waste, such as sanitary napkins and food products.

The system is very simple – it is based on minimizing flush volumes and processing waste using hydrothermal carbonization with basic “pressure-cooking.” This has resulted in a positive energy balance in a compact size, with little-to-no odour. The toilet can work in off-grid situation and can be mobile if needed as well. The prototype design is based on 6-40 users (average 10 users per day). With further development, it is estimated that the system could work with as many as 100 (for shared toilet) with variations in operation parameters and size of the processor. In current form, the toilet is operational and has completed approximately 2500 hours of operations.

The system is composed of: a desirable toilet seat; an input tank; pump; high temperature pressure reactor; heater; expansion tank; and material collector. The system operates by heating up the input material, cooking it for some time and delivering the output material. The process is exothermic in nature and overall energy positive. The system is design with control systems to enable data collection during the experimentation phase, but also with a very simple user interface for house use. We have also designed in several layers of safety features. In domestic sanitation, size matters. The Loughborough Toilet’s compact size enables its ready use at household level, and we will continue to investigate other ways to reduce its size. Additionally, there is potential for the system to operate off-grid. For demonstration purposes, the system is run off batteries charged by solar collectors and back-up gas-powered generator.


Low-cost Decentralized Sanitary System for Treatment, Water and Resources Recovery

National University of Singapore is working to develop a low-cost eco-sanitation system that: 1) transforms feces into a biological charcoal (biochar) through pyrolysis (decomposition at elevated temperatures without oxygen); 2) recovers urine and cleansing water into clean water for on-site personal hygiene usage by evaporation, condensation and sand/zeolite filtration; 3) produces fertilizers from concentrated urine; and 4) provides odor control by a ventilation fan powered 24/7 by microbial fuel cell. Disinfection processes using hypochlorite and solar LED system on recovered water and fertilizer shall provide additional level of safety from pathogens. The system is designed by considering cultural and sanitation practices in the field.



The Solar Septic Tank and Hydrocyclone Toilet, Asian Insitute of Technology

Performance Improvement Planning (PTP) Model, Center for Environmental Planning and Technology(CEPT) University